Unsurprisingly, the Black Hundred received moral and financial support from the tsarist regime itself. Although the Bolsheviks recognised the managerial importance of the intelligentsia to the future of soviet Russia, the bourgeois origin of this stratum gave reason for distrust of their ideological commitment to Marxist philosophy.
John Kautsky makes a similar point, and sees Lenin as a prototype Third World moderniser, attempting to initiate the hot-house economic development of a backward country by means of an intelligentsia-led revolution. Troitskii claimed that the Russian monarchs held sway of the nobility which was reduced to state service.
As the Soviet government and state apparatus claimed to represent the popular masses, this meant that the organisations that under previous governments had been set up to defend the working class were now in a position of mediating between the workers expressing their local and individual interests, and the apparatus, which had much wider interests and concerns.
The bureaucracy was the public face of the government but was widely despised for its corruption and officiousness. Similarly the number of periodicals increased from 15 in to periodical publications in Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
In Alexander III crippled the zemstva by reducing their autonomy and requiring their decisions to be endorsed by the royal governor.
Daniels, The Conscience of the Revolution, Cambridgepp. Tsarism had no democracy, representation or accountability at higher levels. Machajski considered that the intelligentsia formed an exploiting class.
Machajski, Lenin and the Intelligentsia It is ironic that Lenin and Machajski came close to agreeing around one the most fundamental issues which divided them. Its members thought of themselves as united, by something more than mere interest in ideas; they conceived themselves as being a dedicated order, almost a secular priesthood, devoted to the spreading of a specific attitude to life.
But these ministers were hand-picked by the tsar and served at his pleasure; they were not elected or selected on the basis of merit or achievement, nor were they accountable to the people.
Isaac Deutscher gives a graphic description of the crude conception of Marxism that was held by many of the Bolshevik committee men: But the more immediate threat to the status quo came from radicals, mainly young university students who concluded that reform had run its course and failed.
But the more immediate threat to the status quo came from radicals, mainly young university students who concluded that reform had run its course and failed. Cited in Shatz, op.
Ivan III built upon Byzantine traditions and laid foundations for the tsarist autocracy, a system that with some variations would govern Russia for centuries. Tsarism was also supported by conservative groups like the Black Hundred that sprang up in the early s. The semi-intelligentsia from whom socialism recruited some of its middle cadres enjoyed Marxism as a mental labour-saving device, easy to handle and fabulously effective.
Although the Bolsheviks recognised the managerial importance of the intelligentsia to the future of soviet Russia, the bourgeois origin of this stratum gave reason for distrust of their ideological commitment to Marxist philosophy.
Originally composed of educated nobles, the intelligentsia became dominated by raznochintsy class-less people after We answer it at once and without beating about the bush: Lenin was never an ideologist of the proletariat.The Role of the Russian Intelligentsia in Overthrowing the Tsarist Government PAGES 2.
WORDS 1, View Full Essay. More essays like this: Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. Exactly what I needed. - Jenna Kraig, student @ UCLA. Wow. Most helpful essay resource ever! speculations about the Russian intelligentsia's future. The Origins of Russian Intellectual Culture Although the Russian intelligentsia did not evolve into a self-conscious social force until the midth century, its origins can be traced to the early 18th century, when Peter the Great embarked on a crash campaign to modernize Russia.
The Russian Revolution of divided the intelligentsia and the social classes of Tsarist Russia. Some Russians emigrated, the political reactionaries joined the right-wing White movement for counter-revolution, some became Bolsheviks, and some remained in Russia and participated in the political system of the USSR.
February The Fall of the Tsar The February revolution in Russia opened nine months of titanic class struggle which culminated in the coming to power of the working class, led by the Bolshevik Party headed by Lenin and Trotsky.
The Russian Intelligentsia, a group of people who shared the bond of being intelligent and against the government, played the key role in overthrowing the tsarist government and instating a new government.
‘The traditional role of the intelligentsia is to speak out in the name of the people against the undemocratic state: the intelligentsia defends not only its own interests, but those of the oppressed, viewing its activity as closely connected with the struggle for democracy.Download